POST 16 RESOURCES

A- Level revision sites


http://www.aqa.org.uk
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/websites/16
http://www.coursework.info/
http://www.examsolutions.co.uk/
http://www.geographypages.co.uk/
http://www.ocr.org.uk/
http://www.revisionaid.co.uk/
http://www.revisiontime.com/
http://www.revisionworld.co.uk/
http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level
http://www.samlearning.com/
http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/
http://www.topmarks.co.uk/
http://susanburkecareers.co.uk/
http://www.juicygeography.co.uk/
http://www.geography-revision.co.uk/
https://www.examtime.com/a-levels/revision-tips/
https://www.goconqr.com/
http://getrevising.co.uk/
http://www.hoddereducation.co.uk/media/Documents/Magazines/LearningSkillsbooklet.pdf


Referencing
‘A’ level work must be referenced carefully using the Harvard system. Look at:
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm
This is a brilliant website which shows you how to reference everything and anything.

The Neil's Toolbox website builds references for you and the Limerick University library website has information and tutorials that you might find useful.



Bibliography

Your finished bibliography should be in alphabetical order according to the surname of the author. If there is more than one author go by the first author. If the author is a body, e.g. World Wildlife Fund, treat them in the same way, alphabetical according to the name of the body.

Your bibliography should look a bit like this:


Bibliography
Economic and Social Research Council. 2009. Nanotechnology from the Science to the Social. http://www.esrc.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/ESRC_Nano07_tcm6-18918.pdf
[Accessed July 2009]
Gould, Dinah & Brooker, Chris 2008 Infection Prevention and Control: Applied Microbiology for Healthcare Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire
Hobbie, J E, Daley, R J & Jasper, S 1977 Use of nuclepore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Applied Environmental Microbiology May; 33(5): 1225–1228.
McKay, D. 2000. Arsenic: how much is safe? Albuquerque Journal. July 30, 2000, p. A1.
Monod, J. 1949. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annual Review of Microbiology 3:371-394.
Neidhardt, F.C, Ingraham, J.L. and. Schaechter, M. 1990. Physiology of the Bacterial Cell. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Society for General Microbiology. 2010. Tuberculosis Briefing Paper http://www.sgm.ac.uk/news/hot_topics/tb.pdf [Accessed December 2009]


Here are some common examples of how to structure a reference
This is how a website should be laid out in your bibliography


Economic and Social Research Council. 2009. Nanotechnology from the Science to the Social. http://www.esrc.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/ESRC_Nano07_tcm6-18918.pdf
[Accessed July 2009]


This is how a book should be laid out in your bibliography


Gould, Dinah & Brooker, Chris 2008 Infection Prevention and Control: Applied Microbiology for Healthcare Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire


This is how a journal article should be laid out in your bibliography


Hobbie, J E, Daley, R J & Jasper, S 1977 Use of nuclepore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Applied Environmental Microbiology May; 33(5): 1225–1228
McKay, D. 2000. Arsenic: how much is safe? Albuquerque Journal. July 30, 2000, p. A1.


This is how a scientific paper in a journal should be laid out in your bibliography


Monod, J. 1949. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annual Review of Microbiology 3:371-394.


This is a briefing paper on a website Society for General Microbiology. 2010. Tuberculosis Briefing Paper http://www.sgm.ac.uk/news/hot_topics/tb.pdf [Accessed December 2009]

Literature citations in the body of your paper


Here is an example of a piece of work where the writer has used the Harvard system of referencing. The references are highlighted here in red.


“Conservation, sustainability and biodiversity are major concerns for the Woodland Manager. Smith (1998) identifies Kent woodlands as an important nesting site for the Great Spotted Woodpecker and Kline (2002) and Potter (2007) identify woodlands in South East England as vitally important habitat for the declining grey dormouse. The merits or not of coppicing is currently a greatly debated issue amongst the woodland management community. Research by Ash & Barkham (2002) suggests that coppicing disturbance relates directly to damage inflicted by fallow deer. Smith & Wood (2003) on the other hand present research to suggest that coppicing creates conditions suitable for many plants, insects and birds. This paper will investigate the effects of coppicing on regeneration of a plot in the Wild wood compared to the more disturbed adjacent public lands. Data will be collected using sixty 20 m x40 m plots. Following a study by Jones & Myles (1998) and also work done by the World Wildlife Fund (2005), and the pilot study detailed below, I would anticipate greater sprouting within the Wild Wood plot in comparison to the public land plots. My hypothesis is therefore ….

How it works


If the author's name is used in the text then just put the date of the work in brackets (1949).
For example “it was Monod (1949) who lighlighted this issue.”
If you don’t use the authors name in the text but you a citing their work you put their name and the date of the work in brackets (Monod, 1949).
For example “this issue has been highlighted in a number of studies (Monod 1949) (Jones 1956).”
For multiple authors include the last name of the first author, et al., and the date (Neidhardt et al., 1962).
For example “this was identified in a major study in American in the 1960s (Neidhardt et al., 1962).”
If there is no author put the name of the organization (World Wildlife Fund 1999).




"How to write your scientific paper : a step by step guide"
E H Roberts
November 2010

How to Write Your Scientific Paper
Your report should tell others what study you performed, why you did it, what you discovered, and what it means. Keep it simple.


All research reports follow a general format:


Title Page


Abstract


Introduction


Methods and Materials


Results


Discussion


Conclusion


Literature Cited


Appendix (if necessary)

Your paper should follow this format, be neatly typed using double-spacing and 12 point font. Pages numbers and contents pages are useful but not essential.


Style
Use present tense for background that is already established. For example, "Coppicing is the method of woodland management where trees and shrubs are cut to ground level ….."


Use future tense for work that you will do. For example, "We will test effectiveness of coppicing on tree species …”


Use past tense to describe methods and results of a specific experiment, especially your own. For example, "Data was collected between August and October 1997 using sixty-four 20 m × 50 m plots … “


Captioning
Captioning is a method of separating the body of a paper into sections. Headings show organization and identify the topic for a section or a block of information. Capital letters, underlining, point size, and position on the page help to differentiate rank or level. Be consistent.


Each section of the paper should be clearly labelled with a section title.


TITLE PAGE
Title page should include Title, Author and Date; do not use headers or footers. Make the title of your study clear, descriptive, and informative. Your title should be specific in describing the experiment you performed. For example, "Regeneration by coppicing (resprouting) of tree species in the Wild Wood (Kent) in relation to land use " rather than just "Tree coppicing".

"Regeneration by coppicing (resprouting) of tree species


in the Wild Wood (Kent) in relation to land use"


Jane Smith


July 2011




ABSTRACT
It is best to write your abstract AFTER completing a draft of your scientific paper. The Abstract is a summary of the study, with the emphasis on results and conclusions. Very briefly present the question(s) asked, the experimental design, a summary of observations, and list conclusions. Be very succinct - the abstract should be a single paragraph, no more than one page. It should stand on its own; therefore, do not refer to any other part of the report, such as a figure or table. Avoid long sections of introductory or explanatory material. As a summary of work done, it is written in past tense.


Example
“This study compared and contrasted natural regeneration by coppicing of tree species in the Wild Wood and more disturbed adjacent public lands. Data were collected between August and October 1997 using sixty-four 20 m×50 m plots. Eighty-three percent of the 30 harvested woody species in the forest reserve resprouted after harvesting compared with 90% of the 39 species in the public lands. Coppicing effectiveness (mean number of shoots per stump) varied among species and depended on plant size at the time of cutting, stump height and percentage of the stand removed. Comparing the 16 species effectively sampled in both sites, coppicing effectiveness was 4.9±1.6 (S.E.) shoots per stump in public lands, which is greater than the 3.1±1.4 shoots per stump in the reserve (paired t15=2.433,P=0.014). However, the percentage of resprouting stumps did not differ (paired t15=1.440,P=0.085), but tended to be higher in public lands. The percentages of stumps sprouting per species varied from 0 to 100%, with means of 59 (reserve) and 74% (public lands). The greater levels of resprouting in public lands is interpreted as release from self-thinning dynamics, as the reserve has a much higher tree biomass. Despite high levels of harvesting in public lands, tree densities are virtually identical between land uses as a result of the high levels of resprouting. Due to the prolific coppicing of trees in public lands, it is recommended that the woodland should be managed using coppice rotation as a silvicultural system.”


INTRODUCTION
Start your Introduction on a new page.
The introduction should address these questions and also include a section on your pilot study.


What problem did you investigate?
Why did you choose this subject, and why is it important?
What hypotheses did you test?
Based upon your reading, what results did you anticipate, and why?
To tackle the last question some Library research will be necessary.


* Include a short description of your pilot study and how it informed your main study.


Keep the introduction brief, but do indicate the purpose of the experiments performed as well as appropriate background. Make sure that the reader knows enough to appreciate the relevance of your work and why it is appropriate to ask the question that you will address with your study. Always state the hypothesis and/or objectives in your introduction. Assume that the reader is scientifically literate, but may not be familiar with the specifics of your study. Write in the past tense.


Example
“Conservation, sustainability and biodiversity are major concerns for the Woodland Manager. Smith (1998) identifies Kent woodlands as an important nesting site for the Great Spotted Woodpecker and Kline (2002) and Potter (2007) identify woodlands in South East England as vitally important habitat for the declining grey dormouse. The merits or not of coppicing is currently a greatly debated issue amongst the woodland management community. Research by Ash and Barkham (2002) suggests that coppicing disturbance relates directly to damage inflicted by fallow deer. Smith and Wood (2003) on the other hand present research to suggest that coppicing creates conditions suitable for many plants, insects and birds. This paper will investigate the effects of coppicing on regeneration of a plot in the Wild wood compared to the more disturbed adjacent public lands. Data will be collected using sixty 20 m x40 m plots. Following a study by Jones and Myles (1998), and the pilot study detailed below, I would anticipate greater sprouting within the Wild Wood plot in comparison to the public land plots. My hypothesis is therefore …. “

METHODS AND MATERIALS
How did you conduct your study? What equipment did you use? What procedures did you follow? You must include Health and Safety considerations in this section.

Describe your procedures in sufficient detail so that the experiment could be repeated. Use the past tense passive voice.


Example
"Each coppiced tree was recorded …… " NOT “I recorded each coppiced tree…. ”


This section should be written in paragraph format, not as a list of numbered steps, and should not include any results. Materials should not be listed separately, but should be included in the description of the methods. Use figures, if appropriate, to help the reader picture the equipment. If your work is based on a questionnaire or survey, include the blank questionnaire or survey as part of the Methods section or place it in an appendix and refer to it in the Methods section.

RESULTS
What did you find? Present the results of your research in a logical order. Use tables and figures (such as graphs). Tables and figures need to be numbered and titled separately. This will enable you to refer to them in easily here and in your discussion. Each table or figure also needs a descriptive caption. Even though you may present your results in a table or figure, be certain to explain in the body of your paper the important features of each. If a trend is indicated in a figure, point out that trend to your reader. DO NOT INTERPRET your results in this section. That comes next!


DISCUSSION
In this section, you should interpret your results. Decide if each hypothesis is supported, rejected, or if you cannot make a decision with confidence. How do your results compare with the results of other scientists performing similar experiments? This is where your Library research is used. What conclusions can be drawn from the results of your experiment? If there are ambiguities in your results? What further experiments need to be performed? What are possible directions for future research? What are the theoretical implications or practical applications of your work?


CONCLUSION
What do you conclude, based upon your work and reading on this topic? Wrap up your paper with a brief summary of your conclusions.


LITERATURE CITED
Your work must be referenced extensively and carefully. We are going to be using the Harvard referencing system.


List all literature cited in your report


List all literature cited in your report in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author at the end of your report. If the citation is to a specific page add the page number. For websites state date accessed.


Economic and Social Research Council. 2009. Nanotechnology from the Science to the Social. http://www.esrc.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/ESRC_Nano07_tcm6-18918.pdf
[Accessed July 2009]
Gould, Dinah & Brooker, Chris 2008 Infection Prevention and Control: Applied Microbiology for Healthcare Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire
Hobbie, J E, Daley, R J & Jasper, S 1977 Use of nuclepore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Applied Environmental Microbiology May; 33(5): 1225–1228.
McKay, D. 2000. Arsenic: how much is safe? Albuquerque Journal. July 30, 2000, p. A1.
Monod, J. 1949. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annual Review of Microbiology 3:371-394.
Neidhardt, F.C, Ingraham, J.L. and. Schaechter, M. 1990. Physiology of the Bacterial Cell. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
Society for General Microbiology. 2010. Tuberculosis Briefing Paper http://www.sgm.ac.uk/news/hot_topics/tb.pdf [Accessed December 2009]

Look at:
http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm


This is a brilliant website which shows you how to reference everything and anything.


Examples of how to construct the most common types of reference:


This is a website
Economic and Social Research Council. 2009. Nanotechnology from the Science to the Social. http://www.esrc.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/ESRC_Nano07_tcm6-18918.pdf
[Accessed July 2009]

This is a book
Gould, Dinah & Brooker, Chris 2008 Infection Prevention and Control: Applied Microbiology for Healthcare Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire


This is a journal article
Hobbie, J E, Daley, R J & Jasper, S 1977 Use of nuclepore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy. Applied Environmental Microbiology May; 33(5): 1225–1228.
McKay, D. 2000. Arsenic: how much is safe? Albuquerque Journal. July 30, 2000, p. A1.


This is a scientific paper in a journal
Monod, J. 1949. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annual Review of Microbiology 3:371-394.


This is a briefing paper on a website Society for General Microbiology. 2010. Tuberculosis Briefing Paper http://www.sgm.ac.uk/news/hot_topics/tb.pdf [Accessed December 2009]


Here is an example of a piece of work where the writer has used the Harvard system of referencing. The references are highlighted here in red to help you.


“Conservation, sustainability and biodiversity are major concerns for the Woodland Manager. Smith (1998) identifies Kent woodlands as an important nesting site for the Great Spotted Woodpecker and Kline (2002) and Potter (2007) identify woodlands in South East England as vitally important habitat for the declining grey dormouse. The merits or not of coppicing is currently a greatly debated issue amongst the woodland management community. Research by Ash & Barkham (2002) suggests that coppicing disturbance relates directly to damage inflicted by fallow deer. Smith & Wood (2003) on the other hand present research to suggest that coppicing creates conditions suitable for many plants, insects and birds. This paper will investigate the effects of coppicing on regeneration of a plot in the Wild Wood compared to the more disturbed adjacent public lands. Data will be collected using sixty 20 m x40 m plots. Following a study by Jones & Myles (1998) and also work done by the World Wildlife Fund (2005), and the pilot study detailed below, I would anticipate greater sprouting within the Wild Wood plot in comparison to the public land plots. My hypothesis is therefore …. “


If the author's name is used in the text then just put the date of the work in brackets (1949).
For example “it was Monod (1949) who highlighted this issue.”


If you don’t use the authors name in the text but you a citing their work you put their name and the date of the work in brackets (Monod, 1949).
For example “this issue has been highlighted in a number of studies (Monod 1949) (Jones 1956).”


For multiple authors include the last name of the first author, et al., and the date (Neidhardt et al., 1962).


For example “this was identified in a major study in American in the 1960s (Neidhardt et al., 1962).”


If there is no author put the name of the organization (World Wildlife Fund 1999).


Literature citations in the body of your paper should be in brackets and contain only the author's last name and the date (Monod, 1949).


For multiple authors include the last name of the first author, et al., and the date (Neidhardt et al., 1990).


If the author's name is used in the text then just put the date in brackets (1949). For example it was Monod (1949) who highlighted this issue.


If there is no author put the name of the organization (World Wildlife Fund 1999).

APPENDIX
Appendices contain supplemental information such as lists of terms, definitions, or questionnaires that are useful but not essential to the body of the research paper. If you have a large table of raw data, but most of it is not essential to the discussion in your paper, you could include the complete table as an appendix. A smaller table with a subset of data (or a summary of the data) could then be included in the body of your paper. If you have more than one set of materials to include, give each a number: Appendix 1, Appendix 2, etc.

AS
The BMA Guide to Living with Risk: from radiation to heart attacks - everything you need to know about managing and preventing risk
Michael Henderson
362


Health, Safety and Risk: Looking After Each Other at School and in the World of Work
Dorothy Warren
362


Silent Spring
Rachel Carson
363.7


The Chemistry of Life
S Rose
575.1


DNA: The Secret Life
J Watson
575.1


Improving Nature? : The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering
Michael J. Reiss and Roger Straughan
575.1


Nature via Nurture: Genes, experience and what makes us human
Matt Ridley
575.1

Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA
Brenda Maddox
575.1


Seven Daughters of Eve
Brian Sykes
575.1


Y: The Descent of Men
Steve Jones
575.1


Plants for People
Anna Lewington
581


Seeds of Change: Six Plants that Transformed Mankind
Henry Hobhouse
581


Alex: the Life of a Child
F Deford
920 DEF


Dorothy Hodgkin: A Life
Georgina Ferry
920 HOD


A2
The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization
Brian Fagan
551.6


Darwin and the Barnacle
Rebecca Stott
575


Life And Death Of Smallpox
Ian Glynn and Jenifer Glynn
610.09


A Fly for the Prosecution: How Insect Evidence Helps Solve Crimes
ML Goff
364.2


Corpse: Nature, Forensics and the Struggle to Pinpoint Time of Death
Jessica Snyder Sachs
364.2


Every Second Counts
Lance Armstrong
920 ARM


The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat
Oliver Sacks
150


The Forest People
Colin M Turnbull
920 TUR


Phantoms in the Brain: Human Nature and the Architecture of the Mind
V.S. Ramachandran and Sandra Blakeslee
150